one of the most heinous crimes imaginable. Yet few people know that the
Bible often condones and even approves of rape. How anyone can get their
moral guidance from a book that allows rape escapes me. Perhaps they have
been lied to about the Bible and carefully detoured around all the nasty stuff
in the Bible.
So grab your Bibles and follow along
as I show you all the nasty rapes that your priests and preachers don't want to
tell you about. Note that in many places in the Bible there are
references to "taking a wife". Don't be fooled into thinking
that these were voluntary marriages. This first quote clearly shows that
murder and force were used to "take" these wives."
Before we begin
this section, there are two claims which need to be examined. The first is the claim, "the Bible often
condones and even approves of rape".
This is not the case. The Law
forbid rape, and God does not approve of it.
Rape is a sin. In the time that
the Law was written, rape was a crime that was punishable by death (Deuteronomy
The second claim is that marriages
in the Bible usually involved rape, since they were not voluntary. By that definition, all marriage in the Bible
would be classified as rape, since marriages were almost never voluntary in the
Ancient Near East. In that culture and
time period (as in some Eastern cultures today), marriages were always arranged
by the parents of the bride and groom .
Men and women often did not even meet their spouse until the wedding
day. Marriage then was very different
from today, where men and women choose their spouses and marry for love. In the time period and culture where the
Bible was written, people had little to no choice who their spouse would
be. Marriage was mostly for family
alliances, protection and continuation of family property/assets, and
There are several Bible passages
referred to in this section; this post will address the first one.
following quote is taken from evilbible.com:
"Murder, rape, and pillage at Jabesh-gilead - So they sent twelve
thousand warriors to Jabesh-gilead with orders to kill everyone there,
including women and children. "This is what you are to do,"
they said. "Completely destroy all the males and every woman who is not a
virgin." Among the residents of Jabesh-gilead they found four
hundred young virgins who had never slept with a man, and they brought them to
the camp at Shiloh in the land of Canaan.
Israelite assembly sent a peace delegation to the little remnant of Benjamin
who were living at the rock of Rimmon. Then the men of Benjamin returned to
their homes, and the four hundred women of Jabesh-gilead who were spared were
given to them as wives. But there were not enough women for all of
them. The people felt sorry for Benjamin because the LORD had left this
gap in the tribes of Israel. So the Israelite leaders asked, "How
can we find wives for the few who remain, since all the women of the tribe of
Benjamin are dead? There must be heirs for the survivors so that an
entire tribe of Israel will not be lost forever. But we cannot give them
our own daughters in marriage because we have sworn with a solemn oath that
anyone who does this will fall under God's curse."
they thought of the annual festival of the LORD held in Shiloh, between Lebonah
and Bethel, along the east side of the road that goes from Bethel to
Shechem. They told the men of Benjamin who still needed wives, "Go
and hide in the vineyards. When the women of Shiloh come out for their
dances, rush out from the vineyards, and each of you can take one of them home
to be your wife! And when their fathers and brothers come to us in
protest, we will tell them, 'Please be understanding. Let them have your
daughters, for we didn't find enough wives for them when we destroyed
Jabesh-gilead. And you are not guilty of breaking the vow since you did not
give your daughters in marriage to them.'" So the men of Benjamin
did as they were told. They kidnapped the women who took part in the
celebration and carried them off to the land of their own inheritance.
Then they rebuilt their towns and lived in them. So the assembly of
Israel departed by tribes and families, and they returned to their own homes. (Judges 21:10-24, NLT)
Obviously these women were repeatedly raped. These
sick b------s killed and raped an entire town and then wanted more virgins, so
they hid beside the road to kidnap and rape some more. How can anyone see
this as anything but evil?"
book of Judges is a story of the breakdown of a society without God. The book ends with this sentence: "In those days
Israel had no king; everyone did as they saw fit" (Judges 21:25). The Israelites had ceased following God after
they entered the promised land of Canaan, and though judges ruled over them for
a time, the conditions of the nation of Israel continued to get worse,
culminating in the events of Judges chapters 19-21, arguably one of the most
disturbing passages of the Bible.
The story begins with the rape and
murder of a Levite man's concubine by a group of Benjamite men in the town of
Gibeah. In response to his concubine's
murder (though in fact, he complacently allowed them to rape and murder her),
the Levite man cut her body into pieces and sent the pieces into each tribe of
Israel. When the nation found out about
the crime, it led to a bloody civil war with many casualties on both
sides. This leads us to the events of
Judges chapter 21.
First of all, we need to examine
this passage in a historical context. It
is important to note that the Bible does not always approve everything that it
records. Just because there is an act of
violence recorded in the Bible does not mean that God approves of that act of
violence. Some parts of the Bible,
particularly the Hebrew scriptures (Old Testament), are books of history. The book of Judges is one such book,
describing the nation of Israel during the period of the judges (circa
1380-1050 BCE). The book of Judges is
not part of the Law (Torah) given to the Israelites, and does not contain
instructions on how to live a life that pleases God (such as Paul's letters in
the New Testament). It is a book of
As stated before, this sad story is
an example of what happens when people and nations turn their backs on God and
live life however they want to. None of
the characters in this tragic story do anything that honors God. First, the Benjamite men of Gibeah gang raped
and murdered a woman, in defiance of the Law (Exodus 20:13; Deuteronomy
22:25-27). What is worse is that the
woman's husband and the man that they were staying with allowed this to
happen. Not only did they not come to
her defense, but they sent her out to the group of men. In this respect, they were as guilty of the crime
as the men who killed her.
Instead of following the procedure
the Law prescribed for dealing with murder (Numbers 35), the Levite man
mutilated his concubine's body and stirred up the entire nation to war. Only in chapter 20 do we see the Israelites
actually asking God for counsel, when they went to punish the men of Gibeah and
the Benjamite men who refused to surrender them. In chapter 21, they stopped seeking God's
counsel, and decided to solve their problem of wives for the remaining
Benjamites themselves, through more bloodshed and kidnapping, which was also
against the Law (Exodus 21:16). In
short, in every way the Israelites failed to do the right thing in this passage,
and the book of Judges ends on a solemn note.
References  Life In The Ancient Near East, Daniel C. Snell, 1997. Pgs. 52-54.
I wanted to take a brief break from the discussion this week, since it's Easter weekend. I'd like to share a brief quote:
"If our Lord said, frequently, with great definiteness and detail, that after He went up to Jerusalem He would be put to death, but on the third day He would rise again from the grave, and this prediction came to pass, then it has always seemed to me that everything else that our Lord ever said must also be true." - Wilbur M. Smith
"Burn Nonbelievers - Suppose
you hear in one of the towns the LORD your God is giving you that some
worthless rabble among you have led their fellow citizens astray by encouraging
them to worship foreign gods. In such cases, you must examine the facts
carefully. If you find it is true and can prove that such a detestable
act has occurred among you, you must attack that town and completely destroy
all its inhabitants, as well as all the livestock. Then you must pile all
the plunder in the middle of the street and burn it. Put the entire
town to the torch as a burnt offering to the LORD your God. That town
must remain a ruin forever; it may never be rebuilt. Keep none of the
plunder that has been set apart for destruction. Then the LORD will turn
from his fierce anger and be merciful to you. He will have compassion on
you and make you a great nation, just as he solemnly promised your
ancestors. "The LORD your God will be merciful only if you obey him
and keep all the commands I am giving you today, doing what is pleasing to
him." (Deuteronomy 13:12-18 NLT)
passage is another example of the term charam
(see my earlier article on "Charam"), which means, "the
complete consecration of things or people to the Lord, either by destroying
them or by giving them as an offering" .
In this instance, there are a few
things which need to be considered.
First of all, the charge of idolatry is a very grievous sin, which God
does not take lightly (see Exodus
20:3-6, 23; 23:13, 23-24; 34:17; Leviticus 19:4; 26:1; Deuteronomy 4:15-28;
5:7; 6:14-15; 8:19; 12:31; 17:2-7; 27:15; 29:17-18). God warned the Israelites on several
occasions that if they committed idolatry, it was a crime that warranted the
death penalty. The Israelites' covenant
with God demanded that they worship and serve him only. They were not supposed to worship other gods
or fashion idols for themselves. God had
warned them that if they did these things, it would lead to their destruction:
you ever forget the LORD your God and follow other gods and worship and bow
down to them, I testify against you today that you will surely be
destroyed" (Deuteronomy 8:19, NIV).
Why is idolatry considered such a
serious crime? The severity of the judgment,
capital punishment, is due to the severity of the sin. God is the only God, the Lord and creator of
all the universe. When anyone bows down
and worships or pays tribute to a false god or idol, they are taking credit
away from God and giving it to something undeserving of that credit. "I am the LORD; that is my name! I will not yield my glory to another or my
praise to idols" (Isaiah 42:8, NIV).
The crime of idolatry was so serious that it was often referred to as
adultery against God (Ezekiel 6:9).
A process was involved in
determining whether or not someone was guilty of this crime. First of all, the case had to be carefully
investigated, and there had to be proof of guilt (Deuteronomy 13:14). It could not be a baseless accusation. The Law also stipulated that there had to be
at least two witnesses to the crime before it could be investigated
(Deuteronomy 17:6, 19:15). Finally, if
there was proof that the crime had been committed and the inhabitants of the
town were sentenced to death, they and all of their possessions were to be
destroyed. The people could not just
kill those convicted of the crime and keep their property and possessions.
A question that may arise here is,
"Why was the entire town burned, including all of the people?" In instances of charam, God designated certain persons, places, and things as
objects of his special wrath and judgment because, in his omniscience, he knew them
to be impure and hopelessly unrepentant .
An example was to be made of that town, so that those who observed it
would be warned against ever committing the same crime themselves (Deuteronomy
It is also important to note that
the town was burned after the inhabitants had been killed (verses 15-16). The inhabitants of the town were not burned
Footnote in the Holy Bible, New Living Translation (NLT). This term (charam) occurs in the following verses:
Exodus 22:20; Leviticus 27:21, 28-29; Numbers 18:14; 21:2-3; Deuteronomy 2:34;
3:6; 7:2, 26; 13:15-17; 20:17; Joshua 2:10; 6:17-21; 7:1, 11-15; 8:26; 10:1,
28, 35, 37, 39-40; 11:11-12, 20-21; 22:20; 1 Samuel 15:3, 8-9, 15, 18-21.
 Footnote on
net.bible.org, for Deuteronomy 2:34.
Fuel for Fire - As for you, son of man, prophesy: Thus says the Lord GOD
against the Ammonites and their insults: A sword, a sword is drawn for
slaughter, burnished to consume and to flash lightning, because you planned
with false visions and lying divinations to lay it on the necks of depraved and
wicked men whose day has come when their crimes are at an end. Return it
to its sheath! In the place where you were created, in the land of your
origin, I will judge you. I will pour out my indignation upon you,
breathing my fiery wrath upon you, I will hand you over to ravaging men,
artisans of destruction. You shall be fuel for the fire, your blood shall
flow throughout the land. You shall not be remembered, for I, the
LORD, have spoken. (Ezekiel 21:28-32 NAB)"
passage is a prophecy against the Ammonites.
The Ammonites were an ancient nation who were descendants of Lot
(Abraham's nephew) and one of his daughters (Genesis 19:30-38). The Ammonites were constantly at war with the
nation of Israel, and their relations were always hostile (Judges 3:13; 2
Chronicles 20; Nehemiah 4:7). They even
oppressed the Israelites for 18 years (Judges 10:6-9). Again and again, their mission seemed to be
not only to oppress Israel and take their land, but to humiliate and disgrace
them: they threatened to gouge the right eyes out of every man of Jabesh Gilead
(1 Samuel 11:1-2), and they humiliated a peaceful delegation of Israelite
ambassadors by shaving their beards and cutting off their clothing, leading to
a war (2 Samuel 10; 1 Chronicles 19).
They were also known for their cruelty in times of war: "This is what the LORD says: 'For
three sins of Ammon, even for four, I will not relent. Because he ripped open the pregnant women of
Gilead in order to extend his borders...'" (Amos 1:13, NIV).
This particular passage in Ezekiel mirrors other passages
in the books of prophecy of the Old Testament, stating that God would wipe out
the nation of the Ammonites (Jeremiah 49:1-6; Ezekiel 25:1-7; Zephaniah 2:8-9). God had given the Ammonites a chance to make
peace with Israel during the reign of King David, but the Ammonites rejected
the peaceful offer (2 Samuel 10; 1 Chronicles 19). Eventually, God's patience ran out, and he
determined to allow them to be conquered as they had conquered and oppressed
other nations. By the end of the Roman
Empire, the nation of Ammon was
completely dissolved, absorbed into the Arabians .
This is a prophecy of war, and like many of the
prophecies, it describes what the conquerors will do to the nation that is
being conquered. The Bible does not
record that the Ammonites were actually burned alive; "fuel for the
fire" can be literally translated as "food for the fire" or "consumed
by God's anger". Fire and burning
are used in Hebrew to designate any destruction, whether of humans or objects. To be consumed by fire, in this context,
means to be destroyed in war . The
meaning is not necessarily literal. In
any case, as another passage in Ezekiel notes, God does not take pleasure in
the deaths of anyone (Ezekiel 18:23, 32; 33:11).
 Justin Martyr's
Dialogue With Trypho, (originally written circa 160 CE) translated by Henry
Brown, 1745. Pg. 167.
An Introduction to the
Critical Study and Knowledge of the Holy Scriptures, Thomas Hartwell Horne, 1836. Pg. 405.
Heinrich Friedrich Wilhelm Gesenius (translated by Samuel P. Tregelles), 1847
Sacrifice -Chastised a little, they shall be greatly blessed, because God
tried them and found them worthy of himself. As gold in the furnace,
he proved them, and as sacrificial offerings he took them to himself.
In the time of their visitation they shall shine, and shall dart about as
sparks through stubble; (Wisdom 3:5-7 NAB The Book of The Wisdom of
Solomon is mostly in Catholic versions of the Bible.)
Child Sacrifice - And this became a hidden trap for mankind, because men, in
bondage to misfortune or to royal authority, bestowed on objects of stone or
wood the name that ought not to be shared. Afterward it was not enough
for them to err about the knowledge of God, but they live in great strife due
to ignorance, and they call such great evils peace. For whether they
kill children in their initiations, or celebrate secret mysteries, or hold
frenzied revels with strange customs…
(Wisdom 14:21-23 RSV) The Book of The Wisdom of Solomon is mostly in
Catholic versions of the Bible. This passage condemns human sacrifice but
acknowledges that it did happen by early God worshipers."
I'm only briefly going to discuss this passage, since The
Book of the Wisdom of Solomon is considered Apocrypha (non-canonical) in the
Jewish scriptures and most standard Bibles.It is interesting to note that it was not included in the canon by
Catholics until the 15th century CE.
First of all, neither passage promotes human sacrifice.The first passage is merely symbolic,
representing a person's total devotion to God.The second passage clearly condemns the practice of child sacrifice to
false gods and idols; the sacrifices being made are not to God, nor would they
be approved by God.
In any case, this book was not included in the Biblical
canon, and is not authoritative.One
major reason for this is that it was written far too late to have been written
by King Solomon (who ruled circa 971-931 BCE); scholars roughly place it as
having been written between the 2nd century BCE-1st century CE.It was rejected by the Jews as non-canonical
in 90 CE, and was also rejected by several of the early church fathers.It is not part of the Word of God.
and Human Sacrifice - At the LORD's command, a man of God from Judah went to
Bethel, and he arrived there just as Jeroboam was approaching the altar to
offer a sacrifice. Then at the LORD's command, he shouted, "O altar,
altar! This is what the LORD says: A child named Josiah will be born into
the dynasty of David. On you he will sacrifice the priests from the
pagan shrines who come here to burn incense, and human bones will be burned on
you." (1 Kings 13:1-2 NLT)
[Josiah] executed the priests of the pagan shrines on their own altars,
and he burned human bones on the altars to desecrate them.
Finally, he returned to Jerusalem. King Josiah then issued this
order to all the people: "You must celebrate the Passover to the LORD your
God, as it is written in the Book of the Covenant." There had not
been a Passover celebration like that since the time when the judges ruled in
Israel, throughout all the years of the kings of Israel and Judah. This
Passover was celebrated to the LORD in Jerusalem during the eighteenth year of
King Josiah's reign. Josiah also exterminated the mediums and psychics,
the household gods, and every other kind of idol worship, both in Jerusalem and
throughout the land of Judah. He did this in obedience to all the laws
written in the scroll that Hilkiah the priest had found in the LORD's
Temple. Never before had there been a king like Josiah, who turned to the
LORD with all his heart and soul and strength, obeying all the laws of Moses.
And there has never been a king like him since. (2 Kings 23:20-25
In order to get a better sense of what is going on in
this passage, we need to examine what was going on during the reign of King
Josiah of Judah (circa 640-609 BCE).
At this point in Israel's history, the northern kingdom
of Israel had been conquered by the Assyrians, and those who had lived there
were exiled and dispersed.The kingdom
of Judah remained, and had fallen into decline.King Manasseh of Judah (circa 698-642 BCE), King Josiah's grandfather, was
responsible for defiling the Temple of God by placing idols of Baal and Asherah
inside of it (Deuteronomy 16:21; 2 Kings 21:2-9; 2 Chronicles 33:1-9).He also practiced child sacrifice in defiance
of the Law (Deuteronomy 18:10), by sacrificing his own sons in a fire (2 Kings
21:6; 2 Chronicles 33:6).He also was
responsible for the murder of many innocent people (2 Kings 21:16).His son, Amon (Josiah's father) was no better
when he became king, and he reigned only two years before being murdered by his
officials as part of a conspiracy (2 Kings 21:19-24; 2 Chronicles 33:21-25).
Josiah became king at age 8, after his father was
murdered.He was different than his
father and grandfather in terms of his devotion to God, and he made plans to
restore the Temple in Jerusalem.During
this restoration, the high priest, Hilkiah, found the book of the Law in the
Temple, and presented it to Josiah.After Josiah's secretary read it to him, he despairingly sent the high
priest and some of his officials to a prophetess named Huldah to find out what
God had to say regarding the book that had been found.Huldah proclaimed a message from God that
Judah would be destroyed because of the people's idolatry, but that Josiah
would not live to see it.
In response to this message, Josiah immediately began a
series of reforms in his kingdom.Determined to do everything he could to help his kingdom avoid the
coming disaster, he committed himself to God's covenant, and the people did the
same (2 Kings 23:1-3; 2 Chronicles 34:29-33). He then began removing all of the idols and
pagan priests from the kingdom, starting with the Temple.
The question that has been posed is this: Why did Josiah
go to such extremes in his reforms?What
was going on at that time that posed such a threat to the kingdom of
Judah?We will attempt to examine some
of the major issues that Josiah faced, and that he eliminated during his
First and foremost, there was the major issue of
idolatry.The Israelites' covenant with
God demanded that they worship and serve him only.They were not supposed to worship other gods
or fashion idols for themselves.During
Josiah's lifetime, and partially due to the practices of his father and
grandfather, the people of Judah worshipped Baal, Asherah, Molech, and a host
of other idols, in addition to general worship of the stars and
constellations.This was in direct
violation of God's Law, which forbade these practices on several occasions (Exodus
20:3-6, 23; 23:13, 23-24; 34:17; Leviticus 19:4; 26:1; Deuteronomy 4:15-28;
5:7; 6:14-15; 8:19; 12:31; 17:2-7; 27:15; 29:17-18).God had warned them that if they did these
things, it would lead to their destruction: "If you ever
forget the LORD your God and follow other gods and worship and bow down to
them, I testify against you today that you will surely be destroyed" (Deuteronomy 8:19, NIV).Idolatry is a sin that God does not take lightly.This is why Josiah took careful measures to
remove and destroy every idol set up in the Temple, as well as everywhere else
in his kingdom.
Another issue was
that of cultic prostitution.Many
ancient cultures who engaged in pagan worship, particularly that of Baal,
engaged in this kind of prostitution .In some cultures, each man and woman were forced to participate in the
ritual at least once, which was believed to stimulate the fertility of the
crops, animals and humans .The
prostitutes (male or female) would engage in sexual intercourse on a public
altar or in front of a shrine, with whomever would give them money in
exchange.The Canaanites would give
their firstborn daughters to the local pagan temples for this purpose.This was another practice that Josiah
abolished during his reform; he "tore down the quarters of the male
shrine prostitutes that were in the temple of the LORD, the quarters where
women did weaving for Asherah." (2 Kings 23:7, NIV).Prostitution was forbidden in the Law
(Leviticus 19:29; Deuteronomy 23:17-18).
was the matter concerning the verse that evilbible.com quotes: the killing of
the pagan priests on their own altars.Why would Josiah do this?To find
out, we must examine what went on during worship at the pagan altars in the
kingdom of Judah.It is interesting that
the author of evilbible.com does not mention this, since the website (and this
section in particular) is focused on the condemnation of human sacrifice:
human/child sacrifice was massively performed on the pagan altars in question.
Worship of Baal
and Molech frequently involved the sacrifice of infants, particularly firstborn
sons  .Sometimes the babies and
children would be immediately burned to death in a fire, other times they would
first be placed on an altar that had been heated by coals, and then rolled off
of it into a burning fire as a sacrifice.This practice was strongly condemned by God: "They built high
places for Baal in the Valley of Ben Hinnom to sacrifice their sons and
daughters to Molek, though I never commanded—nor did it enter my mind—that they
should do such a detestable thing and so make Judah sin" (Jeremiah 32:35, NIV; see also Leviticus 18:21; 20:2-5;
Deuteronomy 18:10; 2 Kings 23:10; Jeremiah 19:5).(A common question in response is, "If
God was against human/child sacrifice, then why did he command Abraham to
sacrifice Isaac?"See my earlier
article for a discussion of this topic.)Baal worship, besides human sacrifice and cultic prostitution, also
involved self-mutilation (1 Kings 18:28).
With all of this
in mind, we can conclude that Josiah executed the priests for violating God's
commandments against idolatry and child sacrifice.He was, in essence, doing to them what they
had done to countless victims on their altars.
 Daily Life In Ancient Mesopotamia, Karen Rhea
Nemet-Nejat, 1998.Pg. 193.
 Exploring the World of the Bible Lands, Roberta L. Harris,
1995.Pg. 53, 73, 89.
 A History of the Ancient World (Fourth Edition),
Chester G. Starr, 1991.Pg. 156.
"God Commands Burning Humans - [The
Lord speaking] "The one who has stolen what was set apart for
destruction will himself be burned with
fire, along with everything he has, for he has broken the covenant of
the LORD and has done a horrible thing in Israel." (Joshua 7:15
examine the story of Achan in Joshua chapter 7.
Since it always helps to examine a verse in context, you can read the
full chapter here:
Earlier, in the
Law, God specifically had commanded that none of the plunder that had been set
apart for destruction (see the earlier article on charam, things/people devoted to destruction) be kept by the
Israelites (Deuteronomy 7:25-26, 13:17).
The items were a holy offering to God, and were not to be tampered with
Just before this chapter, in Joshua
chapter 6, the Israelites had destroyed the city of Jericho after God had
caused the city walls to fall, and the city and everything in it was supposed
to be destroyed as an offering to God.
Just before they conquered the city, Joshua reminded the Israelites not
to take any of the items devoted to destruction; if they did, they themselves
would be completely destroyed (Joshua 6:17-19).
Achan, a man from the tribe of
Judah, deliberately disobeyed this command, and stole some of the items devoted
to destruction, then hid them among his possessions (verses 20-21). Because of his crime, the Lord withdrew his
protection from the Israelites, as he had warned them he would do if they
violated the Law. 36 Israelite men were
killed in battle because of what Achan had done (verse 5).
The punishment that God sentenced on
the one who took the items devoted for destruction was a very specific
punishment for a specific crime. It is
important to note here that Achan did not voluntarily confess when all of the
Israelites assembled before God. If he
had confessed immediately instead of waiting until all of the tribes and
families had been narrowed down to him, there is a chance that he and his
family might have been spared. When
David confessed his sin of adultery and murder (which was punishable by death),
God had mercy on him, and let him live (2 Samuel chapters 11-12). Likewise, when the city of Nineveh repented
of their sins after a warning from God that he was about to destroy them, he
had mercy and spared them (Jonah chapter 3).
If Achan had voluntarily confessed and repented instead of waiting until
Joshua forced him to confess, he might have been spared as well.
Unfortunately, that is not what
happened. Achan was forced to confess
after he was singled out, and they found the evidence that he had stolen what
was God's and lied about it. The
promised punishment was then carried out: he and his children, along with all
of his livestock and possessions, were destroyed. The Israelites stoned them to death and then
burned the bodies (verse 25); they were not burned alive, as evilbible.com
seems to suggest.
One question that is commonly asked
is, why were Achan's children killed as well?
After all, there is a verse in the Law that states that children should
not be executed for their parents' sins (Deuteronomy 24:16). The explanation here is that Achan's children
knew exactly what was going on, and yet they said nothing. If they had convinced their father to confess
or told Joshua what had happened themselves, they would have been spared. It is entirely possible that they were
accomplices in their father's crime, assisting him in stealing and hiding the
items. This is why they were executed as